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Archive for December, 2011

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Mitt Romney ignores Iowa and winds up at top of polls there /

Obama election strategy: “Blame it on the Republicans in Congress”

 

Text Ed

This article in the New York Times shows how the effort to defund Planned Parenthood has just dirven sex education underground. 

Sex Education Gets Directly to Youths, via Text

Peter Hoffman for The New York Times

Health groups and school districts are using Web sites and texts to reach teenagers.

By
Published: December 30, 2011

While heading to class last year, Stephanie Cisneros, a Denver-area high school junior, was arguing with a friend about ways that sexually transmitted diseases might be passed along.

Peter Hoffman for The New York Times

A draft of a blog entry for Sex-Ed Loop. The Chicago school district endorsed the program, which includes automated texts.

Cash mobs show it’s innovation, not intervention, that will lead to recovery

By EMILY MALTBY

At 6:30 p.m. last Tuesday, Michelle Murrain showed up at a downtown Oakland, Calif., street corner to meet with 15 strangers who had organized themselves over Facebook. Many showed up with $20 bills.

Their mission was to descend on Marion & Rose’s Workshop, a gifts boutique, to spend money.

Ms. Murrain and her compatriots are among hundreds of devotees of the “cash mob,” a new social-networking-and-shopping movement aimed at increasing sales at selected small businesses.

Similar cash mobs have materialized in more than 20 cities from Norman, Okla., to Muskegon, Mich., most arranged by individuals who establish followings on Facebook and Twitter. The cash-mob organizers don’t get any benefit in return.

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Lisa Gilmore

A ‘cash mob’ patronized Kellygreen Home in Santa Monica this month.

The Oakland event, for instance, was organized by Alex Haider-Winnett, a paralegal and participant in the Occupy Oakland movement.

Cash mobs are one of many buy-local campaigns that recently have spread to communities across the country. One in four business owners say poor sales is their top business problem, ahead of any other issue, according to a November survey from the National Federation of Independent Business, a small-business lobby group.

Last month, in an event called Small Business Saturday, American Express Co. provided its cardholders with a $25 credit if they used the card at small retailers the day after Black Friday. Hundreds of thousands of consumers registered their cards to participate in that promotion, according to American Express, the event’s sponsor.

In contrast, cash mobs spring up organically through social media outlets and have no corporate sponsor or formal advertisements. (At least one cash mob, in Grand Rapids, Mich., was organized by the local Chamber of Commerce, however.)

The first known cash mob was the brainchild of Chris Smith, an engineer for Oracle Corp. The 37-year-old from Buffalo, N.Y., says the idea stemmed from his realization that consumers, including his wife, tend to flock to smaller establishments when a bargain is available through the daily-deal social-networking sites including Groupon Inc. and LivingSocial Inc.

“Why do we need a discount to support good, solid, local businesses?” he asks.

He used Twitter and Facebook to rally more than 100 people to purchase wine at City Wine Merchant on Aug. 5. Business that day tripled, according the store’s president, Eric Genau. “We have clients that would have taken a lot longer to get here or never would have gotten here at all if not for that,” Mr. Genau says.

Several weeks later, a group of young professionals in Cleveland say they independently came up with the same concept and the same name. Their first event, on Nov. 16, drew about 40 people to a bookstore and, afterward, to a bar for drinks. They launched a blog, and the idea began to catch on in Albuquerque, San Diego and elsewhere.

In some areas, Occupy Wall Street affiliates have embraced the idea. The Cleveland group has distanced itself from that cause, noting on its blog that cash mob “isn’t a political or social organization … or meant to be an answer to economic crisis.”

Sarah Ditzenberger, owner of Fischberger’s Variety, a gifts store in Milwaukee, says one cash mob that showed up to spend money at her store earlier this month boosted sales by $1,200, roughly doubling an average day. The extra cash will help to pay off inventory and other business debts, she says.

Sales at the Oakland gift store last Tuesday were around $450, or about double the store’s typical sales. Ms. Murrain, a 52-year-old Web developer, said she purchased herbal tea and greeting cards during the Oakland cash mob event, spending $30.

Some cash mob groups are planning to continue their events in January and February.

Mr. Smith of Buffalo, who has organized mobs at a beer store, a restaurant, a bookstore and a coffee shop, plans to ask his Twitter followers to nominate a business for another cash mob to be held Friday, Jan. 6.

Write to Emily Maltby at emily.maltby@wsj.com

Potato gnocchi

 

  4 large waxy-style potatoes (about 2 1/2 pounds), peeled and cut into sixths

  • 1-1/4 cups plus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
  • 2 large egg yolks
  • 1/2 teaspoon fine salt
  • Generous pinch freshly ground nutmeg
  • Freshly ground black pepper
  • 1/2 cup heavy cream
  • 1/2 BASIL PESTO recipe (about 1/3 cup), recipe follows

Directions

In a medium saucepan, place the potatoes and cover with cold salted water by 1 inch. Bring to a boil, lower the heat, and simmer, uncovered, until tender, about 10 minutes. Drain.

Using a ricer, rice the potatoes onto a parchment-lined baking sheet in an even layer (don’t pile the riced potatoes into mounds). Set aside to cool.

Transfer the potatoes to a large bowl and, using a rubber spatula, gently mix in the flour, yolks, salt, nutmeg, and pepper until just combined and a soft dough is formed. Don’t over mix the dough or the gnocchi will be unpleasantly dense.

On a well-floured work surface, turn out the potato dough, and divide into 6 equal parts. With the palms of both hands gently roll each part into a “rope” 3/4-inch in diameter. Using a sharp knife cut each “rope” on an angle into 3/4-inch-long pieces.

Shape the gnocchi: Hold a salad fork in one hand so it rests on the work surface at a 45-degree angle with the tines curving up. Place a piece of the dough at the top of the tines and hold it in place with your free thumb. In one gentle motion, quickly press and roll the dough along the tines. The gnocchi should have a small dent in one side and shallow grooves on the other, perfectly suited for holding a sauce. Repeat with the remaining pieces and transfer to a lightly floured baking sheet pan. Store in the refrigerator for at least 1 hour and up to 24 hours before cooking.

When ready to serve, bring a large pot of salted water to a boil. In a medium skillet, over medium-high, heat the heavy cream until just hot. Remove from the heat and whisk in the pesto. Using a rubber spatula, scrape the pesto mixture into the a large bowl. Set aside in a warm spot.

Add half the gnocchi to the boiling water and cook for 1 1/2 minutes or until they rise to the top. (Take care not to overcook the gnocchi or they can disintegrate during cooking.) Using a slotted spoon or strainer, transfer the gnocchi to the bowl with the pesto and toss. Repeat with the remaining gnocchi. If the sauce seems too “tight”, add some of the cooking water a tablespoon at time until a saucy consistency is reached. Season with pepper to taste. Divide among warm bowls and serve immediately.

Cook’s Note: If rolling the gnocchi is intimidating, skip the shaping the gnocchi with a fork. Cooking them unshaped produces a fine gnocchi as well.

 

  • BASIL PESTO
  • 2 cups loosely packed basil leaves, washed and dried thoroughly
  • 2 tablespoons toasted pine nuts
  • 2 tablespoons freshly grated Parmesan
  • 1/4 teaspoon minced garlic
  • 1/2 teaspoon kosher salt
  • 1/4 cup plus 1 tablespoon extra-virgin olive oil
  • Freshly ground black pepper

In a food processor, combine the basil, pine nuts, Parmesan, garlic, and salt and puree. While the motor is running, drizzle in the oil until incorporated. Season with pepper to taste. Use immediately or store in the refrigerator with a piece of plastic wrap placed right on the surface of the pesto to prevent discoloration, for up to 3 days, or freeze for up to 1 month.

Yield: about 2/3 cup

Copyright 2001 Television Food Network, G.P. All rights reserved.

 

©Television Food Network G.P.
All Rights Reserved.

 

Ingredients

 

  • 4 large waxy-style potatoes (about 2 1/2 pounds), peeled and cut into sixths
  • 1-1/4 cups plus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
  • 2 large egg yolks
  • 1/2 teaspoon fine salt
  • Generous pinch freshly ground nutmeg
  • Freshly ground black pepper
  • 1/2 cup heavy cream
  • 1/2 BASIL PESTO recipe (about 1/3 cup), recipe follows

 

Directions

In a medium saucepan, place the potatoes and cover with cold salted water by 1 inch. Bring to a boil, lower the heat, and simmer, uncovered, until tender, about 10 minutes. Drain.

Using a ricer, rice the potatoes onto a parchment-lined baking sheet in an even layer (don’t pile the riced potatoes into mounds). Set aside to cool.

Transfer the potatoes to a large bowl and, using a rubber spatula, gently mix in the flour, yolks, salt, nutmeg, and pepper until just combined and a soft dough is formed. Don’t over mix the dough or the gnocchi will be unpleasantly dense.

On a well-floured work surface, turn out the potato dough, and divide into 6 equal parts. With the palms of both hands gently roll each part into a “rope” 3/4-inch in diameter. Using a sharp knife cut each “rope” on an angle into 3/4-inch-long pieces.

Shape the gnocchi: Hold a salad fork in one hand so it rests on the work surface at a 45-degree angle with the tines curving up. Place a piece of the dough at the top of the tines and hold it in place with your free thumb. In one gentle motion, quickly press and roll the dough along the tines. The gnocchi should have a small dent in one side and shallow grooves on the other, perfectly suited for holding a sauce. Repeat with the remaining pieces and transfer to a lightly floured baking sheet pan. Store in the refrigerator for at least 1 hour and up to 24 hours before cooking.

When ready to serve, bring a large pot of salted water to a boil. In a medium skillet, over medium-high, heat the heavy cream until just hot. Remove from the heat and whisk in the pesto. Using a rubber spatula, scrape the pesto mixture into the a large bowl. Set aside in a warm spot.

Add half the gnocchi to the boiling water and cook for 1 1/2 minutes or until they rise to the top. (Take care not to overcook the gnocchi or they can disintegrate during cooking.) Using a slotted spoon or strainer, transfer the gnocchi to the bowl with the pesto and toss. Repeat with the remaining gnocchi. If the sauce seems too “tight”, add some of the cooking water a tablespoon at time until a saucy consistency is reached. Season with pepper to taste. Divide among warm bowls and serve immediately.

Cook’s Note: If rolling the gnocchi is intimidating, skip the shaping the gnocchi with a fork. Cooking them unshaped produces a fine gnocchi as well.

 

 

  • BASIL PESTO
  • 2 cups loosely packed basil leaves, washed and dried thoroughly
  • 2 tablespoons toasted pine nuts
  • 2 tablespoons freshly grated Parmesan
  • 1/4 teaspoon minced garlic
  • 1/2 teaspoon kosher salt
  • 1/4 cup plus 1 tablespoon extra-virgin olive oil
  • Freshly ground black pepper

 

In a food processor, combine the basil, pine nuts, Parmesan, garlic, and salt and puree. While the motor is running, drizzle in the oil until incorporated. Season with pepper to taste. Use immediately or store in the refrigerator with a piece of plastic wrap placed right on the surface of the pesto to prevent discoloration, for up to 3 days, or freeze for up to 1 month.

Yield: about 2/3 cup

Copyright 2001 Television Food Network, G.P. All rights reserved.

 

Hollywood’s newest subversives – conservatives!

 

 It really is funny (in that funny/slash/sad way) that there are so few Republicans in Hollywood willing to come out about their “orientation” that they merit their own category on About.com.  Can you imagine a category called, “Prominent liberals in Hollywood?”  Debbie heard a segment about how the industry is so overwhelmingly liberal that conservatives have to meet in secret. So while we would never stoop to the level of “outing” someone, we did decide to take a closer look.  Unless you’re Heather Locklear or Bo Derek, it turns out it can be career suicide to admit you are a um, err, well, you know, one of them … a Republican!  I have to admit, as a regular old moveigoer, I was offended by the film, “W.”  It wasn’t only that it isn’t a real mooooovie – it was a mirage of media and political opinion-it was that someone would make a film like that about a sitting President. I can see why Mel Gibson and his movie, ” The Crucifixion,” may have driven all reasonable conservatives in Hollywood underground – or at least over the hills and into the Valley.  But, when you consider the fact that Mitt Romney was only able to generate 1 million dollars at a Tinseltown fundraiser in early December, I think you need to ask yourself if people in the “industry” are afraid to support the Republican candidate in public.  Of course, it will be up to them what they do in the voting booth.  Here is a sampling of what you find if you google Republicans in Hollywood:

  • Trace Adkins: Country Music Singer & TV Personality
  • Danny Aiello: Film Actor
  • Stephen Baldwin: Actor, Radio Personality
  • Pat Boone: Singer, Songwriter
  • Wilfred Brimley: Commercial Actor & Star of Cocoon
  • Jerry Bruckheimer: TV & Film Producer
  • James Caan: Legendary Film Actor
  • Drew Carey: Game Show Host & Former TV Star
  • Adam Carolla: Former Host of The Man’s Show
  • Tom Clancy: Espionage and Military Science Author
  • Jon Cryer: Notable Film & TV Actor
  • Robert Davi: TV & Film Actor
  • Bo Derek: Model, Film & Television Actress
  • Dale Earnhardt Jr.: American Race Car Driver
  • Clint Eastwood: Academy Award Winning Film Actor & Director
  • John Elway: Hall of Fame Quarterback & Super Bowl MVP with the Denver Broncos
  • Sara Evans: Country Music Singer
  • Lou Ferrigno: TV Actor (Star of The Incredible Hulk & King of Queens Guest Star)
  • Mel Gibson: Film Actor & Academy Award-Winning Director
  • Kelsey Grammer: TV & Film Actor, Star of TV’s Long-Running Series, Frasier
  • Angie Harmon: TV & Film Actor, Star of TV’s Law & Order
  • Elizabeth Hasslebeck: Former “Survivor” Contestant & Co-Host of The View
  • Dennis Hopper: Actor, Director & Two-Time Academy Award Nominee
  • Patricia Heaton: TV Actor, Female Lead in TV’s Everybody Loves Raymond
  • Naomi Judd: Country Music Singer, Actress & Author
  • Lorenzo Lamas: TV Actor
  • Heather Locklear: TV & Film Actress
  • Susan Lucci: Emmy Award-Winning Actress & Soap Star
  • Dennis Miller: Actor, Stand-Up Comedian & Political Commentator
  • Chuck Norris: Legendary TV Actor
  • Ted Nugent: Legendary Musician, Speaker
  • Richard Petty: Seven-time NASCAR Champion
  • Johnny Ramone (John Cummings), Legenday Musician, Founder of The Ramones
  • John Ratzenberger: TV Actor, Voice-Over Personality
  • Robert James “Kid Rock” Ritchie: Singer, Song Writer & Rapper
  • Adam Sandler: Legendary Stand-Up Comedian, “Saturday Night Live” Alum & Hollywood Film Star
  • Pat Sajak: Wheel of Fortune Game Show Host & Political Columnist
  • Curt Schilling: World Series Champion & Former Phillies, Diamondbacks & Red Sox Pitcher
  • Tom Selleck: TV & Film Actor
  • Ron Silver: TV & Film Actor
  • Jessica Simpson: Singer, Actress & TV Personality
  • Gary Sinise: Academy Award Nominated Film Actor & TV Star
  • Sylvester Stallone: Producer, Director, Writer & Legendary Film Actor, Star of Rocky & Rambo Films
  • Ben Stein: Film Actor, Game Show Host & Political Commentator
  • John Stossel: Investigative Reporter, Speaker
  • Janine Turner: Film & TV Actor
  • Jon Voight: Academy Award-winning Film Actor and Political Activist
  • Bruce Willis: Legendary Film Actor & Two-Time Emmy Award Winner
  • Lee Ann Womack: Country Music Singer
  • James Woods: Noteable Film Actor
  • David Zucker: Director of Airplane & Naked Gun Films

 

Author, screenwriter and commentator Andrew Klavan spoke with CNSNews.com on Monday about conservatives coming out of the closet in Hollywood to create entertainment that reflects traditional American values. (CNSNews.com/Penny Starr)

Screenwriter and author Andrew Klavan said that in Hollywood, “(i)f you’re a conservative, especially a religious person, people have to meet in secret. They talk in whispers. It’s a very disturbing kind of culture.”
 
Klavan, in an exclusive interview with CNSNews.com, explained that he and fellow conservatives in Hollywood are battling the liberal status quo by creating entertainment that reflects the values held by the majority of Americans.
 
And things are changing for the better, he said, pointing to the best-picture Oscar nomination for the Christian-themed film “The Blind Side” and Sandra Bullock’s win as best actress in the movie.
 There is a political/social shift occurring in Hollywood, Klavan told CNSNews.com, adding, “I think we’re changing it.  It’s not something that’s happening passively. It’s something that’s happening because people are really making noise.”
 
“I have nothing against atheists or left-wingers making movies,” Klavan said. “I think everybody should be able to make movies. I simply think this kind of lock-step conformity that has become the default position of American intellectuals has to go. It’s bad for the arts. It’s bad for our intellectual conversation.”
 
The Hollywood culture, Klavan said, has made it difficult for conservatives to be successful and promote their own brand of entertainment product.
 
“There’s a culture in Hollywood where you are a left-winger; you can speak very openly – even in business meetings,” Klavan said. “If you’re a conservative, especially a religious person, people have to meet in secret. They talk in whispers. It’s a very disturbing kind of culture.”
 
Klavan also mentioned the experience of Academy Award-winning actor Denzel Washington’s experience in making the movie, “The Book of Eli,” which is about a post-apocalyptic world where the hero’s mission is to protect the last remaining Bible.

Academy Award-winning actor Denzel Washington. (Wikipedia Commons)

“When Denzel Washington recently made a film called ‘The Book of Eli’ – and Washington is a Christian and he made a film about a post-apocalyptic world in which he’s fighting to save the Bible, fighting to save the last copy of the Bible – the studio kept coming to him and saying, ‘Could you cut out some of the references to the Bible? Could you cut out some of the religious references?’” said Klavan.
 
“And I thought, ‘Why, are you afraid of making too much money? What’s the problem?” he said. 
 
Klavan explained, as is well-documented, that many of the traditional, pro-family, and pro-religious movies are usually very financially successful in Hollywood. But many producers and directors do not like to make the films regardless of their potential for success.
 
Klavan said in his own career he has tried to “change the rules” by creating compelling books and films that feature characters who share the same beliefs and values of most Americans.
 
Two of his crime novels, “True Crime” and “Don’t Say a Word” were made into films starring Clint Eastwood and Michael Douglas, respectively. His screenplays include “Shock to the System” starring Michael Caine, and “One Missed Call.”
 
And now his series of books for young adults, “The Homelanders,” has been optioned by Summit Entertainment, maker of the “Twilight” film series and the film that won the 2010 Oscar for best picture, “The Hurt Locker.”
 
The hero of the series, teenager Charlie West, is a Christian and an American patriot with a black belt in karate whose adventures include fighting Islamic extremists and trying to clear his name after he’s charged with murder.
 
Klavan was in Washington, D.C., on Monday, to speak at a conference about intellectual property rights as it pertains to artists whose work is stolen online.
 
But the real threat, as Klavan sees it, is the Democrats who are in control in the White House and Congress.
 
“I think it’s a really very sinister and bad development,” Klavan said when asked about current events in the nation’s capital. “I don’t think the people involved are necessarily sinister and bad, but I think they are misguided.”
 
“They believe in a philosophy that has already been shown to be destructive and not to work,” Klavan said. “They are people who don’t understand the basic values o

Click here for the latest headlines as of 12/21

gingrich’s inspiration in politics: Richard Nixon /

mystery robo calls about hilary 2012

The Mom Vivant / Congress less popular than Paris Hilton

From Dr. Jays.com’s Ben Glaser:

Their salaries are paid by tax payers, and they spend their time declaring tomato paste a vegetable and ignoring the tax cuts they were specifically assigned to make. And they get free healthcare. Is it any wonder that Congress is less popular than the ubiquitous hotel heiress?

The latest monthly Gallup poll shows Congressional approval at 13% for the second month in a row, the lowest since Gallup began tracking it in 1974. This discontent cuts across party lines among all Americans.

In response, Sen. Michael Bennet (D-CO) has called for Congress to take sweeping action against the nations problems, instead of just keeping things going.

In a Senate floor speech, Bennet presented a chart showing Congress’ current approval ratings compared to a long list of other historical ratings.

Among the things more popular than our current Congress: the IRS (40%); BP during the oil spill (16%); and the idea of America going Communist (11%).

Bennet took some consolation in the fact that Congress is still more popular than Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.

[Note: Bennet’s figure of 9% approval for Congress is comparable to the Gallup polls 13%, which had a 4% margin of error.]

On MSNBC’s The Daily Rundown, Bennet said he felt the nation’s frustration was “completely justified,” as Congress has simply “kept the lights on” when they should be figuring out “how we’re going to meaningfully participate in the 21st century economy.”

What do you think? Do you approve of Congress’ job performance?

Click here for the latest headlines as of 12/18

 

 

Condi Rice as VP?

Pizza Panini

From Parenting.com: By Patty Santelli, Photograph by Tina Rupp

 
 
 

Kid-Friendly RecipePrep time: 3 minutes
Cook time: 3 to 4 minutes
Yield: 4 servings

* 4 small Italian rolls or 1 loaf French bread cut into four 3-inch pieces
* 1/2 cup bottled pizza sauce
* 1 cup shredded mozzarella or a blend (such as Kraft 5-Cheese Italian)
* 1 cup frozen chopped broccoli, thawed, or 16 slices pepperoni
* 4 tsp grated parmesan cheese

1. Preheat indoor grill or grill pan. Split rolls in half. Spoon 2 tablespoons pizza sauce on half of each roll. Top each with 1/2 cup shredded mozzarella, 1/4 cup broccoli or 4 slices pepperoni, and 1 teaspoon parmesan cheese. Top with remaining bread.

2. Place sandwiches on grill, cover, and cook them for 4 minutes, until cheese is melted. Cool slightly and slice on diagonal. Serve with sliced yellow or red peppers.

Tip: You can also cook panini on a nonstick pan over medium-high heat. Place a smaller skillet on top of sandwich to flatten slightly. Cook 2 minutes, carefully flip, flatten, and cook 2 more minutes.

Per serving (with broccoli): 349 calories, 9 g fat (3 g saturated), 928 mg sodium, 11 mg cholesterol.

What is a caucus?

The Iowa caucuses are right around the corner on January 3rd.  The winter break provides a nice opportunity to discuss the caucuses and how they work with your kids.  Check out this excerpt from U.S. Politics:

What Are Caucuses?

A caucus is the lowest level meeting of members of a political party where members discuss issues and select precinct representatives. During President election years, members also select delegates to attend the party convention. Caucuses are considered grassroots events because they are held at the precinct level; venues may be school gymnasiums or someone’s living room. Iowa has about 1,800 precincts.

This Google Map displays live news and events from across the state; both the Democratic and Republican parties are partnering with Google to present real-time caucus results.

Who Participates?

Any registered voter can participate in a caucus. Parties require that voters re-register as a party member; a voter can attend only one party’s caucus.

What Happens At A Caucus Meeting?

Caucus meetings are personal — no voting machines here. The precinct chair will convene the meeting; those attending discuss the various candidates who are seeking the nomination. They may also discuss party platform issues. After everyone has had their say, there’s a vote, which is usually public (viva-voce). Republican and Democratic parties have different voting procedures.

How Do Democrats Select Delegates?

There are 1,784 precincts. The precinct caucuses begin at 6:30 p.m. on Thursday 3 January; attendees may register until 7 p.m. After everyone has had a say, attendees gather in like-minded groups, including undecideds. To be viable, a candidate must have a minimum level of support of 15-25% of the participants (varies based on number of delegates assigned to the precinct). After the first “round,” supporters of candidates with less than the required percentage may join another group. Delegates pledge support to a specific candidate and are selected from the candidate supporters at the caucus. Iowa has 57 Democratic National Convention delegates.

Iowa Democratic Party; Caucus Results

How Do Republicans Select Delegates?

Republicans separate candidate preference from convention delegate selection. After everyone has had a say, attendees vote in a straw poll (paper ballot, counted by hand) to determine the winner. The attendees then select delegates, who do not have to declare which candidate they support. Iowa has 40 Republican National Convention delegates.

Iowa GOP; Caucus Results

What Happens Next?

The press reports a “winner” based upon the percentage of delegates won by each candidate. History suggests that how well candidates meet or exceed expectations may be as crucial as an actual “win.”

Delegates selected at precinct caucuses move on to a county convention (99 counties; 1 March for Rs, 15 March for Ds), where a sub-set of delegates is selected to attend the district, then state convention. At the state convention (14 June), a sub-set of delegates is selected to attend the national convention.

For Democrats, the number of state delegates is proportional to the number of votes received at the state caucus. For Republicans, the winner gets all of party delegates at the national convention.

How Did This System Develop?

Even before Iowa became a state in 1846, the political system was based upon caucuses to nominate political leaders. In the early 1970s, the Democratic party changed the delegate selection process to make it more inclusive. In 1972, state leaders moved the caucuses to January, making it an early test for candidates. In 1976, Republicans moved their caucus date to match the Democrats. Since then, candidates and national media have observed the Iowa caucuses as the “First in the Nation” presidential event.